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Application Rates
The amount of Topflor required for an optimum growth response depends upon several factors: desired height, duration of growth response and degree of control, pot size, stage of growth, method of application, season and cultivar response. Species-specific cultural practices such as watering, potting media, fertilization, temperature and light conditions also affect the growth response to a given dosage. Therefore, growers should establish specific application rates based on small-scale treatments under actual use conditions and keep records as to plant species and cultivar sensitivity before Topflor is applied to a large number of plants. The rates recommended on this label are rate ranges and should be used only as a guideline.

For spray, drench and chemigation applications, do not exceed the maximum recommended rate 0.36 lbs ai/A for single applications. Do not exceed more than 3.0 lbs ai/A/year. Rate (lbs ai/A) will determine the maximum number of seasonal applications allowed not to exceed 3.0 lbs ai/A/year. If required, repeat applications to the same crop may be applied at 5 to 21 day intervals.

Topflor is effective in controlling the height of most ornamental crops. The use and rate recommendations for the species that follow should be a starting point in determining the best rate for your specific cultural and environmental growing conditions. Before Topflor is applied to a large number of plants, read and understand the section titled Application Rates within the complete specimen label.
Crop Guidelines
Bedding Plants

Topflor is effective on a wide range of bedding plants for height control. See Table 3 for spray application rate guidelines for a variety of common bedding plants. For specific plants not identified on Table 3, use 0.5-80 PPM as the recommended General Guideline Rates for plugs to finished bedding plants.

Table 3: Spray Rate Range Trial Guidelines for Some Bedding Plants*
Plant Rate Range (PPM)* Plant Rate Range (PPM)*
Ageratum 20-60 Osteospermum 20-60
Amaranthus tricolor 60 Pansy 2.5-7.5
Calceolaria 20 Petunia 20-60
Celosia, flame 10-40 Portulaca 40-80
Coleus, seed 20-40 Salvia 20-80
Dianthus 40-60 Snapdragon 15-40
Dusty Miller 20-30 Spilanthes 20-40
Geranium, zonal 15-25 Stobilanthes 5-20
Impatiens 20-60 Vinca2 2.5-10
Marigold 20-60 Verbena 20-40
Nemesia1 10-15 Zinnia 20-40
*These rate ranges were determined largely under mid-Atlantic conditions using medium-vigor cultivars. Rates should be adjusted to reflect the need for higher rates for vigorous cultivars and in the Sunbelt Region and lower rates in the Northern U.S. Topflor is not recommended for use on fibrous begonia. Overly stunted plants can result if they receive spray drift from applications to surrounding crops.

1Nemesia: A rate of 10-15 PPM is recommended for a single spray application. Alternatively, apply twice at 5 PPM with the second application made two weeks after the first. 2Annual vinca (periwinkle): Growers should note that black spotting may result from higher rates of spray application, especially at high temperatures.

Drench: Apply to uniformly moist root media. Apply at a solution concentration at General Guideline Rates of 0.25-4 PPM at the recommended volume per pot (See Table 2). Rates for a specific plant species/cultivar and set of use conditions should be determined in small-scale treatments prior to large-scale applications. The user should determine his/her own optimum rates noting that the above-listed rate range encompasses production in the warmer and cooler climates.

Bedding Plant Plugs

Spray applications of Topflor may be used to control the height of certain aggressive species of bedding plant plugs. Over-regulation and poor performance after transplanting the plug can occur if rates are too high or if used on overly-responsive crops.

Due to the responsiveness of bedding plant plugs to Topflor, it should only be used on Geraniums, Impatiens, Marigolds, and Petunias. Do not use Topflor on sensitive bedding plant plugs including Begonia, Pansy, Salvia, and Vinca.

Differences in environmental factors and cultural practices during plug production can have a dramatic impact on plant growth regulator rates and results. Growers should conduct trials on a small scale under their growing conditions to determine the optimum rate that will provide proper efficacy while ensuring desirable growth and crop performance in the finishing stage.

A trial spray application of 5-8 PPM is the suggested General Guideline Rate, which should be adjusted based upon trial results and user observations. Application timing is suggested after the development of the first 1-2 true leaves. Application volume generally should be 1 gallon per 200 sq. ft. of treatment area.

Do not apply as a drench to bedding plant plugs.

Bulb or Fibrous Root Crops

Topflor is very effective on most bulb crops. Topflor is more effective when applied as a drench rather than a spray on most bulb crops (See Table 4). For bulb species not listed in Table 4, the grower should determine the optimum rate for the species grown under their cultural and environmental conditions by running trials on a small number of plants. In general, apply a soil drench to uniformly moist rooting media approximately 2 weeks after planting when new growth reaches 1 inch.

Table 4: Rate Range Guideline for Some Bulb Crops
Plant Spray Rate Range(PPM)* Drench Rate Range*
mg a.i./pot
Calla Lily ND 1-2.5
Canna Lily 50-80 ND
Dahlia NR 0.5-2
Oriental Hybrid Lily "Stargazer" ND 0.25-0.5
Tulip1 80-100 0.5-1
Hyacinth ND 0.5-1
Caladium NR 0.5-2
*These rate ranges were determined largely under mid-Atlantic conditions using medium-vigor to vigorous cultivars. Rates should be adjusted to reflect the need for higher rates in the Sunbelt Region and lower rates in the Northern Belt Region or for less vigorous cultivars.

1Tulip spray for control of post-harvest stretch.
ND = Rates for this application technique have not been determined.
NR = Not a recommended use.


Flowering /Foliage Potted Plants

Topflor is effective when applied as a spray or drench on a wide variety of flowering and foliage plants. For flowering/foliage potted plants not listed in Table 5, the grower should determine the optimum rate for the species grown under their cultural and environmental conditions by running trials on a small number of plants.

Table 5: Rate Range Trial Guidelines for Some Flowering/Foliage Plants
Plant Spray Rate Range(PPM)* Drench Rate Range*
mg a.i./pot
Campanula 10-30 ND
Cape Primrose
   (Streptocarpus hybridus)
5-20 ND
Chrysanthemums1 7.5-25 ND
Exacum 25-50 0.01-0.03
Garden Mum 50-100 ND
Geraniums 10-25 ND
Hibiscus 40-80 1-2 (ppm)
Poinsettia 2.5-80 (see Table 5) 0.03-0.5
Pot Mum 15-25 ND
Sunflower 30-50 1-2
*These rate ranges were determined largely under mid-Atlantic conditions using medium-vigor cultivars. Rates should be adjusted to reflect the need for higher rates for vigorous cultivars and in the Sunbelt Region and lower rates in the Northern Belt Region.

1Chrysanthemum spray: A rate of 7.5-15 PPM is recommended for sensitive varieties and 15-25 ppm for others. Spray when the axillary shoots following the pinch are 1.5 inches long or before rapid elongation occurs. If a second application is required, it should be made two weeks after the first.

ND = Rates for this application technique have not been determined.


Poinsettia

Topflor is very effective at controlling height in Poinsettias using either foliar sprays or soil drenches.

Table 6: Poinsettia Growth Vigor Groups and Spray Rate Range Trial Guidelines
Vigor Groups Example Cultivars Weeks of growth
after pinch
(6.5-inch pot)
NORTH
Weeks of growth
after pinch
(6.5-inch pot)
SOUTH
Topflor
Spray
Rate
(PPM)*
Very Low 'Hollypoint', 'Carousel' 7-8 4-5 NR
Low 'Maren', 'Sonora Red', 'Coco White' 5-6 3-5 2.5-20
Moderate 'Freedom Red', 'Orion', 'Prestige Red', 'Christmas Season', 'Christmas Wish' 3-4 2-3 15-40
Substantial 'Red Velvet', 'Spotlight Dark Red', 'Victory Red' 2-3 2-3 30-60
Extreme 'Monet Twilight', 'Snowcap' 2-3 1-2 60-80
*These are guidelines to provide relative growth differences among cultivars. They should not be viewed as specific recommendations.

NR = Not a recommended use.


Early Drench: Apply to uniformly moist root media. Apply at a solution concentration at General Guideline Rates of 0.25-0.5 PPM at the recommended volume per pot (See Table 2). Rates for a specific vigor class and set of use conditions should be determined in small-scale treatments prior to large-scale applications. The user should determine his/her optimum rates noting that the above-listed rate range encompasses production in the warmer and cooler climates.

Poinsettia Application Timing
Early Applications: Treat plants at pinch up to 6 weeks after pinch, or 8 to 12 weeks before finishing.

Late Applications: The timing of application should be based upon the height of the poinsettia in relation to height goal. If final plant height goal is 15 inches, then apply Topflor when the plants are 12-13 inches in height. To ensure uniformity, any plants shorter than 12-13 inches should not be treated at that time. Like most PGRs, seasonably late applications of Topflor will reduce plant height, with minimal to no effect on bract size.

Vegetative Annuals
University studies have shown that Topflor is very effective at controlling height in vegetative annuals using foliar sprays.

Table 7: Rate Range Trial Guidelines for Some Vegetative Annuals
Plant Spray Rate Range
(PPM)*
Angelonia 45-60
Argyranthemum 20-40
Calibrachoa 5-30
Geranium, vegetative 15-25
Lantana 15-30
Nemesia 10-15
New Guinea Impatiens 5-10
Nicotiana 20-80
Petunia, vegetative 30
Scaevola 45-60
*These rate ranges were determined largely under mid-Atlantic conditions using medium-vigor to vigorous cultivars. Rates should be adjusted to reflect the need for higher rates in the Sunbelt Region and lower rates in the Northern Belt Region or for less vigorous cultivars.

Perennial Plants, Herbaceous

Topflor is effective in controlling height of a wide variety of herbaceous perennial plants. Rate ranges for different species and cultivars vary greatly. Trials should be conducted using a General Guidelines Rate of 20-80 PPM for spray applications. Examples of perennials for which the product has provided optimum height control include:

Acalypha Lantana Sage, Mexican bush (Salvia leucantha)
Arbutilon Lobelia Scabiosa
Butterfly bush (Buddleia sp.) Pachystachys Verbena
Coreopsis Phlox Veronica
Fuchsia Sage, Russian (Perovskia atriplicifolia)  

Woody Landscape Plants (Container-grown in greenhouses and shadehouses)

Topflor is effective in controlling the height on a wide variety of woody landscape plants using either spray or drench applications. Rate ranges for different species vary greatly. Trials should be conducted using a General Guidelines Rate of 100-200 PPM for spray applications. Typical application rate is 1 gallon of spray mixture (up to 200 ppm) per 200 square feet of potted plants. Examples of woody nursery plants for which the product has provided optimum height control include:

Abelia Euonymus kiautschovicus 'Manhattan' Hydrangea
Azalea Gardenia jasminoides 'Mystery' Photinia X fraseri (Fraser photinia)
Bouganvillea Glory bush (Tibouchina sp.) Rhododendron catawbiense 'Nova Zembla'
Cotoneaster dammeri 'Coral Beauty' Holly:Ilex X attentuata 'Fosteri' (Foster holly); Ilex X meserveae 'China Girl' Rose
Dipladenia Honeysuckle 'Goldflame' (Lonicera X heekrotti)  
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